International Women’s Day (March 8) is a global day celebrating the social, economic, cultural and political achievements of women. The day also marks a call to action for accelerating gender parity.
International Women’s Day (IWD) has been observed since in the early 1900’s – a time of great expansion and turbulence in the industrialized world that saw booming population growth and the rise of radical ideologies. International Women’s Day is a collective day of global celebration and a call for gender parity. No one government, NGO, charity, corporation, academic institution, women’s network or media hub is solely responsible for International Women’s Day. Many organizations declare an annual IWD theme that supports their specific agenda or cause, and some of these are adopted more widely with relevance than others.
“The story of women’s struggle for equality belongs to no single feminist nor to any one organization but to the collective efforts of all who care about human rights,” says world-renowned feminist, journalist and social and political activist Gloria Steinem. Thus International Women’s Day is all about unity, celebration, reflection, advocacy and action – whatever that looks like globally at a local level. But one thing is for sure, International Women’s Day has been occurring for well over a century – and continue’s to grow from strength to strength.
International Women’s Day timeline journey
Great unrest and critical debate was occurring amongst women. Women’s oppression and inequality was spurring women to become more vocal and active in campaigning for change. Then in 1908, 15,000 women marched through New York City demanding shorter hours, better pay and voting rights.
In accordance with a declaration by the Socialist Party of America, the first National Woman’s Day (NWD) was observed across the United States on 28 February. Women continued to celebrate NWD on the last Sunday of February until 1913.
In 1910 a second International Conference of Working Women was held in Copenhagen. A woman named Clara Zetkin (Leader of the ‘Women’s Office’ for the Social Democratic Party in Germany) tabled the idea of an International Women’s Day. She proposed that every year in every country there should be a celebration on the same day – a Women’s Day – to press for their demands. The conference of over 100 women from 17 countries, representing unions, socialist parties, working women’s clubs – and including the first three women elected to the Finnish parliament – greeted Zetkin’s suggestion with unanimous approval and thus International Women’s Day was the result.
Following the decision agreed at Copenhagen in 1911, International Women’s Day was honoured the first time in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland on 19 March. More than one million women and men attended IWD rallies campaigning for women’s rights to work, vote, be trained, to hold public office and end discrimination. However less than a week later on 25 March, the tragic ‘Triangle Fire’ in New York City took the lives of more than 140 working women, most of them Italian and Jewish immigrants. This disastrous event drew significant attention to working conditions and labour legislation in the United States that became a focus of subsequent International Women’s Day events. 1911 also saw women’s Bread and Roses‘ campaign.
On the eve of World War I campaigning for peace, Russian women observed their first International Women’s Day on the last Sunday in February 1913. In 1913 following discussions, International Women’s Day was transferred to 8 March and this day has remained the global date for International Women’s Day ever since. In 1914 further women across Europe held rallies to campaign against the war and to express women’s solidarity. For example, in London in the United Kingdom there was a march from Bow to Trafalgar Square in support of women’s suffrage on 8 March 1914. Sylvia Pankhurst was arrested in front of Charing Cross station on her way to speak in Trafalgar Square.
On the last Sunday of February, Russian women began a strike for “bread and peace” in response to the death of over 2 million Russian soldiers in World War 1. Opposed by political leaders, the women continued to strike until four days later the Czar was forced to abdicate and the provisional Government granted women the right to vote. The date the women’s strike commenced was Sunday 23 February on the Julian calendar then in use in Russia. This day on the Gregorian calendar in use elsewhere was 8 March.
International Women’s Day was celebrated for the first time by the United Nations in 1975. Then in December 1977, the General Assembly adopted a resolution proclaiming a United Nations Day for Women’s Rights and International Peace to be observed on any day of the year by Member States, in accordance with their historical and national traditions.
The UN commenced the adoption of an annual theme in 1996 – which was “Celebrating the past, Planning for the Future”. This theme was followed in 1997 with “Women at the Peace table”, and in 1998 with “Women and Human Rights”, and in 1999 with “World Free of Violence Against Women”, and so on each year until the current. More recent themes have included, for example, “Empower Rural Women, End Poverty & Hunger” and “A Promise is a Promise – Time for Action to End Violence Against Women”.
By the new millennium, International Women’s Day activity around the world had stalled in many countries. The world had moved on and feminism wasn’t a popular topic. International Women’s Day needed re-ignition. There was urgent work to do – battles had not been won and gender parity had still not been achieved.
The global internationalwomensday.com digital hub for everything IWD was launched to re-energize the day as an important platform to celebrate the successful achievements of women and to continue calls for accelerating gender parity. Each year the IWD website sees vast traffic and is used by millions of people and organizations all over the world to learn about and share IWD activity. The IWD website is made possible each year through support from corporations committed to driving gender parity. The website’s charity of choice for many years has been the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) whereby IWD fundraising is channelled. A more recent additional charity partnership is with global working women’s organization Catalyst Inc. The IWD website adopts an annual theme that is globally relevant for groups and organizations. This theme, one of many around the world, provides a framework and direction for annual IWD activity and takes into account the wider agenda of both celebration as well as a broad call to action for gender parity. Recent themes have included “Pledge for Parity”, “Make it happen”, “The Gender Agenda: Gaining Momentum” and “Connecting Girls, Inspiring Futures”. Themes for the global IWD website are collaboratively and consultatively identified each year and widely adopted.
2011 saw the 100 year centenary of International Women’s Day – with the first IWD event held exactly 100 years ago in 1911 in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland. In the United States, President Barack Obama proclaimed March 2011 to be “Women’s History Month”, calling Americans to mark IWD by reflecting on “the extraordinary accomplishments of women” in shaping the country’s history. The then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton launched the “100 Women Initiative: Empowering Women and Girls through International Exchanges”. In the United Kingdom, celebrity activist Annie Lennox lead a superb march across one of London’s iconic bridges raising awareness in support for global charity Women for Women International. Further charities such as Oxfam have run extensive activity supporting IWD and many celebrities and business leaders also actively support the day
2017 and beyond
The world has witnessed a significant change and attitudinal shift in both women’s and society’s thoughts about women’s equality and emancipation. Many from a younger generation may feel that ‘all the battles have been won for women’ while many feminists from the 1970’s know only too well the longevity and ingrained complexity of patriarchy. With more women in the boardroom, greater equality in legislative rights, and an increased critical mass of women’s visibility as impressive role models in every aspect of life, one could think that women have gained true equality. The unfortunate fact is that women are still not paid equally to that of their male counterparts, women still are not present in equal numbers in business or politics, and globally women’s education, health and the violence against them is worse than that of men. However, great improvements have been made. We do have female astronauts and prime ministers, school girls are welcomed into university, women can work and have a family, women have real choices. And so each year the world inspires women and celebrates their achievements. IWD is an official holiday in many countries including Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, China (for women only), Cuba, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, Eritrea, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Madagascar (for women only), Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Nepal (for women only), Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam and Zambia. The tradition sees men honouring their mothers, wives, girlfriends, colleagues, etc with flowers and small gifts. In some countries IWD has the equivalent status of Mother’s Day where children give small presents to their mothers and grandmothers.
A global web of rich and diverse local activity connects women from all around the world ranging from political rallies, business conferences, government activities and networking events through to local women’s craft markets, theatric performances, fashion parades and more. Many global corporations actively support IWD by running their own events and campaigns. For example, on 8 March search engine and media giant Google often changes its Google Doodle on its global search pages to honor IWD. Year on year IWD is certainly increasing in status.
So make a difference, think globally and act locally!
Make everyday International Women’s Day.
Do your bit to ensure that the future for girls is bright, equal, safe and rewarding.
What values drive International Women’s Day?
International Women’s Day means different things to different people, but the global focus on equality and celebration is clear.
Throughout ancient and modern history, women have collaborated and lead purposeful action to redress inequality in the hope of a better future for their communities, children and themselves. Whether through bold well-documented action or through humble resistance that never made it into the history books, women have united for equality and achievement forever.
And along the way, one particularly powerful collaboration lead to the formation of a globally united moment for women across countries to come together in hope and action. That moment is “International Women’s Day”.
Started in the early 1900’s, the almighty and tenacious Suffragettes forged purposeful action for equality. It was the Suffragettes who started International Women’s Day, with the first officially named “lnternational Women’s Day” event held in 1911.
And still to this day, International Women’s Day continues to be a powerful platform globally that unifies tenacity and drives action for gender parity, while celebrating the social, cultural, economic and political achievements of women.
The specific values that drive International Women’s Day provide an important parameter for guiding the action, behaviours and ethos associated with this critical and globally-supported day.
The ten International Women’s Day values are:
As modern day Suffragettes – both female and male – let us continue the work and spirit of the almighty Suffragettes, fighting the good fight. And let us recognize, honor and celebrate the important and impressive achievements of women globally.
While the concept of justice may differ across cultures, the notion of justice is based on respect and equality amongst people. The Suffragettes toiled unreservedly for justice, dignity and hope. Justice means being afforded the same equal rights and opportunities as men. Today through International Women’s Day, the call for justice across the world still prevails as women seek equal treatment, conditions and opportunities to that of men.
A leading organisation campaigning for Women’s suffrage in the United Kingdom, the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) that existed from 1903 – 1917 with membership and policies tightly controlled by Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters Christabel and Sylvia, adopted from 1908 the colour purple to symbolise dignity. Dignity, as a value, refers to the idea that all people have the right to be valued, respected and receive ethical treatment. The word is derived from Latin dignitas meaning worthiness.
Hope is the feeling of expectation and desire for a certain thing to happen. The Suffragettes campaigned tirelessly for a better world, one where they trusted that women would receive equal rights and opportunities. The Suffragettes symbolised the value of hope with the colour green. The Suffragette colours were used on banners, flags, rosettes and badges.
Equality means ensuring all people have equal opportunities to make the most of their lives and talents, and that no one has poorer life chances due to their background or status – the very core of International Women’s Day. Gender equality refers to women receiving and accessing the same opportunities and benefits as men – but throughout history, women were deemed to have no place in politics. They couldn’t stand as candidates for Parliament and they weren’t allowed to vote as it was assumed husbands would take responsibility for political matters because a woman’s role was seen to be child-rearing and taking care of the home.
Just as Suffragettes rallied together, as did the earlier Suffragists, so too do modern day women (and men) who understand that there is power in unity. Strength in numbers and voice are critical in driving change. International Women’s Day was founded on collaboration, and continues to be a key element of its power to this day. Across the world individuals and groups unite, not only to celebrate the achievements of women, but to continue to call for action supporting greater gender parity.
Tenacity was a key principle of both the Suffragists and the Suffragettes, and their tireless effort in fighting the good fight changed history. “Deeds not words” was the Suffragettes’ motto and they devoted considerable attention and effort to forging the rights of women. Around the world today, as in the past, exists an extensive number of groups and networks all working to improve the social, economic, cultural and political status of women – and International Women’s Day is the major day for rallying action, driving visibility and applauding women who make a difference through their achievements.
International Women’s Day provides a specific and designated moment each year to identify and celebrate the successful achievements of women. Through celebrating success, populations not only become more appreciative of the role women play in contributing to society but awareness and expectation is increased that women will not be marginalised, discriminated against or absent from future successes moving forward.
Equality can only be achieved if the diversity, differences and qualities of women are truly valued. Respect for others is a key value underpinning the ethos and agenda of International Women’s Day. Respect for others and respect for self play an important part in forging gender equality.
Seeking to understand others, caring for and valuing diversity, and appreciating difference are key to forging deep relationships to affect change. It’s through the ability to understand and share the feelings of others that differing situations and perspectives can be grasped. International Women’s Day calls for global understandings about the plight of women – the challenges faced, obstacles endured and changes desired for an inclusive and progressive world.
Throughout history women have been mistreated – and still to this day women suffer harsh and inhumane treatment through to continuing discrimination in the workplace. Focusing attention and effort on the way forward, reconciling discrimination through encouraging awareness and banding together to affect positive change is all part of what International Women’s Day stands for.
Use these values to deeply understand and drive your own International Women’s Day activity as you call for action and/or celebrate women’s achievements. Looking back to look forward, these values have always under-pinned women’s campaigning for action and recognition.